Perkembangan Penggunaan Skala Richter Dan Magnitudo: Ukuran Kekuatan Gempa

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Sumber Gambar: Youtube.com

Bandung ( beritaindonet.com): Memahami ukuran kekuatan gempa yakni Magnitudo dan Skala Richtermenjadisangat penting, tidak hanya untuk kalangan tertentu, namun menjadi bahan pembicaraan kalangan masyarakat pada umumnya, berhubung pembahasan dunia akhir-akhir ini seputaran gempa dan bencana alam lainnya.

Mengutip Liputan6.com Selasa (21/8/2018) BMKG menyatakan sudah tak menggunakan ukuran Skala Richter (SR) sebagai alat ukur gempa. “BMKG sejak 2008 sudah tidak menggunakan Skala Richter sebagai ukuran kekuatan gempa,” ungkap Kepala Bidang Mitigasi Gempa Bumi dan Tsunami BMKG Daryono saat dihubungi Liputan6.com di Jakarta, Senin (20/8/2018).

Alasannya, kata Daryono, BMKG sudah tidak lagi menggunakan cara ukur yang diciptakan Richter. “Richter mengukur kekuatan gempa memakai amplitudo, dan amplitudo tidak menggambarkan energi lengkap dari gempa,” kata dia.

Surono, ahli geologi Indonesia yang juga mantan Kepala Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) menjelaskan bahwa Magnitudo–biasanya disingkat M, atau paling tidak Mb–memiliki cara pengukuran berdasarkan sensor frekuensi broad band 0.002-100 Hz.

“Mb estimasi energi gempa bumi atau magnitudo dari gelombang badan atau body wave, atau gelombang P atau pressure wave, atau gelombang transversal; di mana getaran partikel tanah searah penjalaran gelombang,” ucap Surono, ditulis Selasa (21/8/2018).

Dia menjelaskan, estimasi magnitudo akan lebih mudah bekerja di ranah atau domain frekuensi, dari spektrum gelombang gempa. Namun, spektra gempa dalam bentuk perpindahan partikel batuan atau tanah di mana sensor dipasang, bukan kecepatan getaran partikel tanah atau batuan di sekitar sensor dipasang.

Menurut Surono, dari spektrum perpindahan gelombang longitudinal, maka dapat diestimasi perbedaan stress (stress drop), lebar atau panjang sesar yang aktif, momen seismik untuk estimasi Ml dan bentuk estimasi magnitude gelombang tekanan di sumber gempa, yang disebut Mb.

Adapun untuk gelombang S atau magnitudo gelombang transversal permukaan dari gempa bumi, disebut Ms. Biasanya Ms lebih besar dari Mb. “Mb dan Ms harus betul diestimasi dari spektra dengan jenis gelombang P (longitudinal) dan gelombang S (transversal),” Surono menekankan.  

Magnitudo Lokal (ML) yang didapatkan di tempat gempa tersebut direkam atau seismograf, jelas dia, dapat dikonversi ke Richter agar lebih akurat. Namun, lebih akurat lagi penghitungan gempa berdasarkan Mb dan Ms.  

Kenapa ML lebih dekat dengan Skala Richter? Menurut Surono, hal ini karena kekuatan gempa diestimasi dari gelombang yang riil dirasakan di daerah yang terlanda gampa.

“Gelombang ini dirasakan di permukaan mengayun seperti naik perahu diguncang ombak, dominan guncangan samping, tidak dominan guncangan naik/turun,” ujarnya mengibaratkan.

Perbedaan Magnitudo Dan Skala Richter:

Lantas, apa perbedaan Skala Richter dengan Magnitudo ?

Skala Richter adalah sebuah satuan gempa yang ditemukan atau dikembangkan oleh Charles F Richter. Metode pengukurannya adalah dengan membuat simpangan amplitude maksimum pada alat seismograf.

Seperti dikutip dari

https://id.kalaRichterwikipedia.org/wiki/Magnitudo_gempaSkala Richter

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